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TRUTMANN, Peter
2012. The Forgotten Mushrooms of Ancient Peru, Global Mountain Action, Fungi and Mountains Publication Series: No 1. 2012, pp 33.

vs1978_412_113.jpg

Vaso Cupinique, periodo: formativo (siglo XII – V a.C), actualmente en el Museo de Arte Metropolitano en Nueva York.
Fuente: Met Museum

RESUMEN
Existe suficiente evidencia para demostrar el uso extensivo de macro-hongos (setas) en el Perú prehispánico hasta hoy en día. Las imágenes de los hongos se muestran en diversas cerámicas, objetos de metal y tejidos en una serie de importantes culturas del norte y el sur, así como la costa y las tierras altas del Perú. Los objetos varían desde la época 1200-200 AC hasta la conquista española. Imagenes realísticas asociadas con imágenes como chamanes fueron con frecuencia de alta calidad que permitió la identificación de al menos hasta un nivel de género. Las especies identificadas fueron: Calvatia, Morchella, Amanita muscaria y Psilocybe. Usando y reconectando información pre hispanica, literatura temprano colonial y estudios etno-micológicos recientes construimos por vez primera una imagen a través del tiempo de cambios en la diversidad, usos y nombres en Quechua. Hongos en la región Cusco y Puno de nombres Quechua incluyen ‘Qoncha’ el Pleurocollybia cineria, ‘Inca Qoncha’ una especie de Tricholomatacea, ‘K’allampa’ Agaricus campestris y otras especies de Agaricus, K’allampa rosado (Polyporus sanguineus), ‘Paku’ Calvatia (C. Cynthiformis y C. Giganta affin.), ‘Chochoca’ (Clitocybe gibba affin.), ‘Chuchuca’ o ‘vela vela’ (Coprinus comatus) y Unchuque (Lepiota sp). Tambien es claro que los hongos sigan siendo importantes en la vida de grupos peruanos en la zona andina. Esperamos con nuestro aporte contribuir y generar interés en la revaloración de esta tradición peruana, valiosa pero olvidada, que podría jugar nuevamente un rol importante en incrementar el bienestar (vivir bien) de las poblaciones y la salud del medioambiente andino.

Ver resumen del artículo en:
http://www.academia.edu/2096777/Los_Hongos_Olvidados_del_Peru_Un_Resumen

ABSTRACT
Evidence is presented to demonstrate extensive use of mushrooms in pre Hispanic Peru. Mushroom imag- es were found on ceramics, metal objects and textiles from a range of important cultures from the north and south, as well as coastal and highland Peru. The objects range in age approximately between 1200-200 BCE to the time of European conquest. Most abundant, vivid images of mushrooms were found from art of the Moche/ Mochica culture, although other in cultures mushroom representations were also clear. Mushrooms, (re- alistic or abstract) were associated with what appear to be personalities of high authority, to shamans/curan- deros and sacrificial victims. Realistic images of mushrooms commonly found associated with shaman like figures were often of high quality and allowed identification of some mushrooms to at least genus level. Identi- fied were Calvatia species, Mochella species, Amanita muscaria and Psilocybe species. Some mushrooms could not be identified, because current knowledge of mushrooms of Peru and its neighbors is limited. The identi- fied mushrooms have various characteristics: Morchella and Calvatia species have both culinary and medicinal properties. Others, like Amanita muscaria, and Psilocybe species have spiritual as well as medicinal properties rather than culinary uses. Since A.muscaria has not been confirmed growing in Peru and its traditional hosts are northern hemisphere trees one hypothesis is that the mushroom were a trade item with countries lying further north or Meso America where A.muscaria has been shown to have been deeply engrained into the re- ligious cultures. The implications and importance of the findings are discussed for understanding of Peruvian cultures and the ancient mind and history. Various suggestions are made to advance archaeological research by integrating better mycological expertise to improve understanding of these remarkable ancient peoples.

Read article in:
http://www.academia.edu/1358551/The_Forgotten_Mushrooms_of_Ancient_Peru